Study and diagnostics in forensic-psychological expertise

Leonid Fedorovich Chuprov

Аннотация


Chuprov L.F.  Study and diagnostics in forensic-psychological expertise // Psychological science and practice: State of the Art. Collected papers / Ed. Kostrigin A.A. Chicago, 2017. P. 121-125.

For almost four decades, Russian forensic-psychological examination has been gradually gaining new psychological methods and technologies.

In modern psychology, there are two ways of collecting and analyzing empirical psychological data: study and diagnostics. Both ways are realized by means of one or a combination with any of the four psychological technologies: actual psychological research, polygraph research, practical testology, practical psychological diagnostics (Balabanova, 1998; Chuprov, 2015; Chuprov, 2017; Shmelev, 2013).

The use of research or diagnostics in forensic-psychological expert practice is determined by the goals and objectives assigned to the expert, and the presence of the subject of forensic-psychological examination (sub-expert).

Psychological research is usually impersonal, sometimes anonymous, sometimes unaddressed (Chuprov, 2017).

If an expert-psychologist or a specialist-psychologist is tasked with giving evidence on documents (material evidence, civil or criminal case materials, or psychological data presented in the case), this is the psychological study. It is also carried out during the postmortem forensic-psychological examination.

 

Polygraphic psychophysiological research using “Polygraph” is also the research, but it can be included in the structure of pathopsychological diagnostics (Balabanova, 1998).

A similar situation with testometry (Shmelev, 2013).. Testing refers more to not only the characteristics of the method (test method), but also to the characteristics of the process of its application. The results of testing can be integrated into the process of individual psychodiagnostics.

The combination of research and diagnostic procedures is expected in the course of an audit of the examination. In addition to researching the materials of the previous examination, the specialist-psychologist is obliged to conduct independent psychological diagnostics.

Diagnostics in forensic-psychological expertise is always individual (clinical approach). It is preceded by an introduction to the request and accompanying documentation (characteristics, circumstances of the case (upon request from a lawyer, investigator, court), products of educational and extracurricular activities (crafts, drawings, etc. from the schooler) hobbies, etc.

Before the diagnostics, the psychologist-practitioner concludes a contract with the subject (i.e. receives permission to work with the sub-expert, designates the boundaries of his competence, etc.) Further he studies complaints, external manifestations in behavior, orientation in space and time, and the actual psychophysical state of whom he works with. He takes into account all available information from appearance, clothing, manner of holding, answering questions or asking them, visible or withdrawn tattoos. All of them is the data obtained during the direct observation of the client, in communication with him.

During the conversation, the adult (or the child's parent) is informed about the development and personal history, anamnesis of the condition. The conversation can be accompanied by a brief projective interview.

After that, the practical psychologist-diagnostician proceeds to the presentation of psychodiagnostic techniques, not forgetting that the results obtained with the help of one technique must be checked by a similar method, but by another technique.

The result of work with the client is a forensic-psychological conclusion. Then the answers to the request follow (forensic-psychological examination or request to specialist-psychologist from the lawyer to "questions posed for permission").


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Литература


Balabanova L.M. Sudebnaja patopsihologija (voprosy opredelenija normy i otklonenij). Doneck: Stalker, 1998. 432 s.

Chuprov L.F. Sudebno-psihologicheskaja jekspertiza v rabote psihologa obrazovanija // Vestnik po pedagogike i psihologii Juzhnoj Sibiri. 2015. № 1. S. 100-113.

Chuprov L.F. Issledovanie ili diagnostika? Pristal'nyj vzgljad diletanta // Psihologicheskaja gazeta. May 19, 2017. URL: http://psy.su/feed/6083/.

Shmelev A.G. Prakticheskaja testologija. Testirovanie v obrazovanii, prikladnoj psihologii i upravlenii personalom. Moskva: OOO «IPC», 2013. 688 s.


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(c) 2017 Leonid Fedorovich Chuprov