“What Is Absolutely Impossible for One Person, Is Possible for Two” – A Historical-Methodological Study Concerning Feuerbachian Elements in the Later Works of L.S. Vygotsky

Peter Keiler

Аннотация


“What Is Absolutely Impossible for One Person, Is Possible for Two” – A Historical-Methodological Study Concerning Feuerbachian Elements in the Later Works of L.S. Vygotsky // История российской психологии в лицах: Дайджест. 2017. № 3. С. 179-211

Abstract. This essay examines the influence of the German materialist philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872) on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky. It starts from the observation that, despite its continuity, Vygotsky’s affinity to Feuerbach did not always express itself in the same way in the course of his scientific career. The main emphasis then is laid on Vygotsky’s later work (1931-1934), whose elaboration was overshadowed by the radical political-ideological changes in the Soviet Union in the early 1930s. I argue that due to the requirements of the new situation Vygotsky had to adopt an attitude that for its paradoxical features could be characterized as “crypto-Feuerbachianism.” The argument then is substantiated by a closer examination of two explicit references to Feuerbach in Vygotsky’s later work. I first analyze the problems one has to cope with when trying to identify the “subtext” or hidden meaning of these kinds of references, and subsequently explain the general significance of what may be called the “Feuerbach principle” in Vygotsky’s later work.

Keywords: Vygotsky, Feuerbach, Historical-political background of Vygotsky’s work, Methodological problems of identifying camouflaged sources, Crypto-Feuerbachianism in Vygotsky’s later work, Cultural-historically oriented psychology

Аннотация. В эссе рассматривается влияние немецкого философа-материалиста Людвига Фейербаха (1804-1872) на идеи Л. С. Выготского. Статья начинается с того наблюдения, что, несмотря на свою преемственность, близость Выготского к Фейербаху не всегда проявлялась одинаково в течение его научной карьеры. Основной внимание уделяется позднему периоду творчества Выготского (1931-1934), чья научно-исследовательская работа была осложнена радикальными политико-идеологическими изменениями в Советском Союзе в начале 1930-х гг. Автор утверждает, что из-за требований новой ситуации Выготский должен был принять такую позицию, которую из-за ее парадоксальных черт можно охарактеризовать как «крипто-фейербахианство». Данный аргумент подтверждается более близким рассмотрением двух явных ссылок на Фейербаха в последние годы его научного творчества (ср. Выготский Л.С. Собрание сочинений. Т. 5, с. 230; Т. 2, с. 361). Сначала я анализирую проблемы, с которыми приходится сталкиваться при попытке идентифицировать «подтекст» или скрытый смысл подобных ссылок, а затем показываю, что в «позднем» Выготском гораздо больше «Фейербаха», чем можно предположить при первом взгляде.

Ключевые слова: Выготский, Фейербах, историко-политический контекст творчества Выготского, методологические проблемы выявления скрытых источников, крипто-Фейербахианство в позднем творечестве Выготского, культурно-историческая психология


Ключевые слова


Выготский, Фейербах, историко-политический контекст творчества Выготского, методологические проблемы выявления скрытых источников, крипто-Фейербахианство в позднем творечестве Выготского, культурно-историческая психология

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Литература


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