Complex of individual features of adult as means of adaptation and self-realization

Dina Mikhailovna Ramendik


Ramendik D.M. Complex of individual features of adult as means of adaptation and self-realization // Psychological science and practice: State of the Art. Collected papers / Ed. Kostrigin A.A. Chicago, 2017. P. 35-38.

It is well known L.S. Vygotsky's position that higher mental functions are specific "tools" for purposeful activity. But any tools are effective only with a balanced systemic complex application.

The purpose of the pilot study is to reveal systemic interconnections of cognitive and individual properties that contribute to the successful professional adaptation and self-realization of an adult. The study involved 120 graduate students, biologists and psychologists. They passed a comprehensive psychological examination, including: 10 standard questionnaires of personality and motivation (Shmelyov, 2002), 2 projective tests, tests for intelligence, attention and various types of memory. According to expert assessments of the teachers 20 strongest and weakest students were identified. The data obtained were subjected to statistical processing.

It was shown that for none of the factors taken in isolation, a group of successful students statistically does not differ from a group of unsuccessful students. Successful students did not excel unsuccessful ones by attention, memory, intellect, motivation or any individual characteristics.

With the help of cluster analysis, three blocks of individual features were identified, within which there were close links. These blocks (clusters) by general content were close to the individual factors of the five-factor model (Costa, 2000). They were identified by the NEO PI-R questionnaire: "active", "social" and "self control" factor. But the specific content of clusters was different for groups of strong and weak students. In the group of strong students, the interconnections between the properties of individuality, which are described in most of the works devoted to these issues, were identified mainly (Shmelyov, 2002, Strelau, 1999). In other words, in this group, people with a strong central nervous system (CNS) were emotionally stable, workable, stress-oriented extroverts with the orientation on communication; People with a foible CNS were introvert, less workable and stress-resistant with the orientation on themselves and on the matter, etc. The results of projective tests showed no signs of high anxiety or association, and generally did not contradict the data of the questionnaires. Such harmonious complexes of various individual properties provided the conditions for the successful adaptation and self-realization of man.

In the group of weak students, the content and structure of the clusters were somewhat different. There were discrepancies between indicators of efficiency, emotionality and communication skills. In this group there were extroverts with a weak CNS and introvert with a strong CNS, or introverts with a focus on communication, etc. The results of projective tests indicated greater anxiety and more personal problems than could be expected from the results of the questionnaires. This non-optimal interaction of individual factors made it difficult to adapt and self-actualize in educational and professional activities.

Thus, from our experimental data it follows that the success of students and the possibility of effective self-realization was determined not by the development of individual cognitive, communicative or personal properties, but by their systemic interaction.

Полный текст:



Costa P., McCrae R., Martin T., Oryol V., Rukavishnikov A., Senin I. Personality development from adolescence through adulthood further cross-cultural comparisons of age difference.// In Temperament and Personality Development across the life span. Edited by V.J.Molfese, D.I. Molfese, LEA, New Jersey, London, 2000. P. 235-253.

Ramendik D.M., Chernyshiov B.V., Chernyshiova E.G. A complex study of individual characteristics involved in the notion of temperament // Voprosy Psychologii. 2014. № 3. P. 105-117.

Shmelyov A.G. Psychodiagnostics of personal trains. St.-Petersbburg: Rech, 2002. (in Russian)

Strelau J., AngleitnerA. & Newberry B.H. Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS): An international handbook. Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 1999.


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(c) 2017 Dina Mikhailovna Ramendik